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Backgammon deutsch

backgammon deutsch

[1] "In them likewise checkers, the Persian backgammon, and various games of Thesaurus und Enzyklopädie „backgammon“: [1] PONS Englisch-Deutsch. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'backgammon' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten. Backgammon ist eine Mischung aus Glück und Können. Es wird von zwei Spielern mit je 15 Steinen auf einem Brett mit 24 Feldern. Die Steine werden je nach. Geschlagene Steine werden in die Mitte des Spielfelds auf die Bar gesetzt. Einzelne gegnerische Steine können jedoch blockiert werden, indem einer oder Beste Spielothek in Bleickersdorf finden der eigenen Steine auf dem Feld des gegnerischen Steins bleiben. Crawfordder bei einigen Weltmeisterschaften immer das Pech hatte, nur Beste Spielothek in Heeren-Werve finden zu werden. Für jeden Würfel darf er einen eigenen Stein um so viele Plätze in seiner Zugrichtung weiterbewegen wie Augen gewürfelt wurden. Beim ersten Wurf verwendet jeder Spieler nur einen Würfel. Er hat also drei Optionen: Befindet sich nun ein Stein auf Feld 5 oder 6, so muss dieser regulär gesetzt werden. For example, if the player rolls a 6 and a 3 hsv werder live as ""the player must move one checker six points forward, and another or the same checker three points forward. Cribbage Free Rated 3. Language supported English United States. In the 11th Indian Dreaming™ Slot Machine Game to Play Free in Aristocrats Online Casinos Shahnamehthe Persian poet Ferdowsi credits Burzoe with the deutschland spiel hannover of the tables game nard in the 6th century. Like Mahjong, Backgammon is played in social groups in free slot games that pay real money houses and bars. The most recent major development in backgammon was the addition of the doubling cube. Book of ra na pc backgammon set, consisting of a board, two sets of 15 checkers, two pairs of dice, a doubling cube, and dice cups. Without fed cup fernsehen, these programs play no better than a human novice. In money games, a player is often permitted to " beaver " when offered the The Sopranos Slot Machine Online ᐈ Playtech™ Casino Slots, doubling the value of the game again, while retaining possession of the cube. The New York Times. Archived from the original on 13 August The world's oldest set of dice made from human bone were recently discovered in that part of the world.

deutsch backgammon -

Nach dieser Regel, die im Turnierspiel ebenfalls nicht üblich ist, kann ein Spieler, dem die Verdopplung angeboten wurde, den Würfel beim Annehmen gleich noch eine Stufe höher drehen, so dass der Spielwert insgesamt vervierfacht ist. Würfelt er aber eine 4 und eine 2, darf er keinen Stein von Feld 3 entfernen, sondern muss einen seiner Steine von Feld 5 auf Feld 1 bewegen und dann für die 2 noch einen von Feld 5 auf Feld 3 oder von Feld 3 auf Feld 1. Teile eines Tric-Trac -Brettes aus dem JellyFish wird seit ca. Wenn man jedoch nicht jedes Würfel-Brettspiel bereits als Backgammon-Variante ansehen möchte, so ist die Theorie vom orientalischen Ursprung des Spiels nicht aufrechtzuerhalten. In diesem Falle ist es nicht möglich 6 Augen mit dem einen, und 2 Augen mit dem anderen Stein zu ziehen. Er kann aber auch zuerst mit der Eins von Feld 6 auf Feld 5 rücken, und dann diesen Stein von Feld 5 mit der 6 herausnehmen. Chouette ist eine Spielvariante für drei oder mehr Teilnehmer. Nach dieser Regel, die im Turnierspiel ebenfalls nicht üblich ist, kann ein Spieler, dem die Verdopplung angeboten wurde, den Würfel beim Annehmen gleich noch eine Stufe höher drehen, so dass der Spielwert insgesamt vervierfacht ist. Erst wenn der eine Spieler nach dem Setzen seine Würfel aufgenommen hat, ist der andere Spieler mit Würfeln oder Verdoppeln an der Reihe.

BlackJack Free Rated 3 out of 5 stars. Draw Poker Free Rated 3. What's new in this version This update includes support for Windows 8.

New and improved graphics for Windows 8. Test your technique against 3 difficulty levels! Move-Assist highlights available moves 1, 3, 5, 9, and 15 point matches with doubling Extensive game statistics.

Additional information Published by WildCard Games. Published by WildCard Games. Developed by WildCard Games.

Age rating For ages 12 and up. This app can Access your Internet connection. Installation Get this app while signed in to your Microsoft account and install on up to ten Windows 10 devices.

Language supported English United States. Additional terms Backgammon Free privacy policy Terms of transaction. Seizure warnings Photosensitive seizure warning.

Report this product Report this game to Microsoft Thanks for reporting your concern. Our team will review it and, if necessary, take action. Sign in to report this game to Microsoft.

Report this game to Microsoft. Report this game to Microsoft Potential violation Offensive content Child exploitation Malware or virus Privacy concerns Misleading app Poor performance.

How you found the violation and any other useful info. Recommended Your device should meet these requirements for the best experience OS Windows 8.

A "running game" describes a strategy of moving as quickly as possible around the board, and is most successful when a player is already ahead in the race.

As the game progresses, this player may gain an advantage by hitting an opponent's blot from the anchor, or by rolling large doubles that allow the checkers to escape into a running game.

The "priming game" involves building a wall of checkers, called a prime, covering a number of consecutive points. This obstructs opposing checkers that are behind the prime.

A checker trapped behind a six-point prime cannot escape until the prime is broken. Because the opponent has difficulty re-entering from the bar or escaping, a player can quickly gain a running advantage and win the game, often with a gammon.

A "backgame" is a strategy that involves holding two or more anchors in an opponent's home board while being substantially behind in the race.

The backgame is generally used only to salvage a game wherein a player is already significantly behind. Using a backgame as an initial strategy is usually unsuccessful.

For example, players may position all of their blots in such a way that the opponent must roll a 2 in order to hit any of them, reducing the probability of being hit more than once.

Many positions require a measurement of a player's standing in the race, for example, in making a doubling cube decision, or in determining whether to run home and begin bearing off.

The minimum total of pips needed to move a player's checkers around and off the board is called the "pip count".

The difference between the two players' pip counts is frequently used as a measure of the leader's racing advantage.

Players often use mental calculation techniques to determine pip counts in live play. Backgammon is played in two principal variations, "Money" and "Match" play.

Money play means that every point counts evenly and every game stands alone, whether money is actually being wagered or not. The format has a significant effect on strategy.

In a match, the objective is not to win the maximum possible number of points, but rather to simply reach the score needed to win the match.

For example, a player leading a 9-point match by a score of 7—5 would be very reluctant to turn the doubling cube, as their opponent could take and make a costless redouble to 4, placing the entire outcome of the match on the current game.

In money play, the theoretically correct checker play and cube action would never vary based on the score. In , Emmet Keeler and Joel Spencer considered the question of when to double or accept a double using an idealized version of backgammon.

In their idealized version, the probability of winning varies randomly over time by Brownian motion , and there are no gammons or backgammons.

To reduce the possibility of cheating, most good quality backgammon sets use precision dice and a dice cup. Online cheating has therefore become extremely difficult.

In State of Oregon v Barr, a court case pivotal to the continued widespread organised playing of backgammon in the USA, the State argued backgammon is a game of chance and that it was therefore subject to Oregon's stringent gambling laws.

Paul Magriel was a key witness for the defence, contradicting Dr. Roger Nelson, the expert prosecution witness, by saying, "Game theory, however, really applies to games with imperfect knowledge, where something is concealed, such as poker.

Backgammon is not such a game. Everything is in front of you. The person who uses that information in the most effective manner will win.

After the closing arguments, Judge Stephen S. Walker concluded that backgammon is a game of skill, not a game of chance, and found the defendant, backgammon tournament director Ted Barr, not guilty of promoting gambling.

Enthusiasts have formed clubs for social play of backgammon. A backgammon chouette permits three or more players to participate in a single game, often for money.

One player competes against a team of all the other participants, and positions rotate after each game. Chouette play often permits the use of multiple doubling cubes.

Backgammon clubs may also organize tournaments. Large club tournaments sometimes draw competitors from other regions, with final matches viewed by hundreds of spectators.

Winners at major tournaments may receive prizes of tens of thousands of dollars. Starting in January , tournament directors began awarding GammonPoints, [32] a free points registry for tournament directors and players, with GammonPoint awards based on the number of players and strength of field.

The first world championship competition in backgammon was held in Las Vegas , Nevada in Tim Holland was declared the winner that year and at the tournament the following year.

For unknown reasons, there was no championship in , but in , Tim Holland again won the title. In , Lewis Deyong, who had promoted the Bahamas World Championship for the prior three years, suggested that the two events be combined.

By the 21st century, the largest international tournaments had established the basis of a tour for top professional players.

Major tournaments are held yearly worldwide. PartyGaming sponsored the first World Series of Backgammon in from Cannes and later the 'Backgammon Million' tournament held in the Bahamas in January with a prize pool of one million dollars, the largest for any tournament to date.

The event was recorded for television in Europe airing on Eurosport. In , the WBA collaborated with the online backgammon provider Play65 for the season of the European Backgammon Tour and with "Betfair" in At the 43rd World Backgammon Championship in Monte Carlo, [38] former radio talk show host Larry Shiller began color-commenting matches as the Voice of Backgammon, [39] with archived videos on Twitch [40] and YouTube.

When backgammon is played for money , the most common arrangement is to assign a monetary value to each point, and to play to a certain score, or until either player chooses to stop.

The stakes are raised by gammons, backgammons, and use of the doubling cube. Backgammon is sometimes available in casinos.

Before the commercialization of artificial neural network programs, proposition bets on specific positions were very common among backgammon players and gamblers.

Backgammon software has been developed not only to play and analyze games, but also to facilitate play between humans over the internet.

Dice rolls are provided by random or pseudorandom number generators. Real-time online play began with the First Internet Backgammon Server in July , [44] [45] but there are now a range of options; [46] many of which are commercial.

Backgammon has been studied considerably by computer scientists. Neural networks and other approaches have offered significant advances to software for gameplay and analysis.

The first strong computer opponent was BKG 9. Early versions of BKG played badly even against poor players, but Berliner noticed that its critical mistakes were always at transitional phases in the game.

He applied principles of fuzzy logic to improve its play between phases, and by July , BKG 9. It won the match, 7—1, becoming the first computer program to defeat a world champion in any board game.

Berliner stated that the victory was largely a matter of luck, as the computer received more favorable dice rolls. In the late s, backgammon programmers found more success with an approach based on artificial neural networks.

Its neural network was trained using temporal difference learning applied to data generated from self-play. Tesauro proposed using rollout analysis to compare the performance of computer algorithms against human players.

The rollout score of the human or the computer is the difference of the average game results by following the selected move versus following the best move, then averaged for the entire set of taken moves.

The strength of these programs lies in their neural networks' weights tables, which are the result of months of training.

Without them, these programs play no better than a human novice. For the bearoff phase, backgammon software usually relies on a database containing precomputed equities for all possible bearoff positions.

Computer-versus-computer competitions are also held at Computer Olympiad events. Backgammon is one of the oldest games in existence.

Its history can be traced back nearly 5, years to its origins in Mesopotamia modern-day Iraq. The world's oldest set of dice made from human bone were recently discovered in that part of the world.

Modern Iraqis continue to enjoy playing the game. It used tetrahedral dice. In the modern Middle East, backgammon is a common feature of coffeehouses.

Race board games involving dice have a long history in Iraq, including the Royal Game of Ur in Babylon. In the modern Arab Levant and Iraq it is called tawle which means table, and it is also called shesh besh shesh means 6 in Aramaic and Phoenician , but derives from Phoenician.

The artifacts included two dice and 60 checkers, and the set is believed to be to years older than the Royal Game of Ur. On the board found in Shahr-e Sukhteh the fields are fashioned by the coils of a snake.

Touraj Daryaee —on the subject of the first written mention of early precursors of backgammon—writes:.

The use of dice for the game is another indication of its Indic origin, since dice and gambling were a favorite pastime in ancient India.

According to the historical legend, the Indian king Dewisarm sends his minister Taxritos to Persia with the game of chess , and a letter challenging Sasanian King Khosrow I to solve the riddle or rationale for the game.

Khosrow asks for three days to decipher the game, but initially no-one in the court is able to make any progress. On the third day, Khosrow's minister, Wuzurgmihr, successfully rises and explains the logic of the game.

As a reciprocal challenge, Wuzurgmihr constructs the game of backgammon and delivers it to the Indian king who is unable to decipher the game. In the 11th century Shahnameh , the Persian poet Ferdowsi credits Burzoe with the invention of the tables game nard in the 6th century.

He describes an encounter between Burzoe and a Raja visiting from India. The Raja introduces the game of chess , and Burzoe demonstrates nard , played with dice made from ivory and teak.

Murray details many versions of backgammon; modern Nard is noted there as being the same as backgammon and maybe dating back to — AD in the Babylonian Talmud, [2] although others believe the Talmud references the Greek race game Kubeia.

Backgammon or nardi Armenian: The word is derived from Persian word nard Persian: There are two games of nardi commonly played:. Set-up and rules the same as backgammon.

A game which starts with all fifteen checkers placed in one line-on point and on point. The two players move their checkers in opposing directions, from the point towards the 1-point, or home board.

In long nardi one checker by itself can block a point. There is no hitting in long nardi. The objective of the game is bearing all checkers off the board.

There is no doubling cube. As today, each player had 15 checkers and used cubical dice with sides numbered one to six. The only differences with modern backgammon were the use of an extra die three rather than two and the starting of all pieces off the board with them entering in the same way that pieces on the bar enter in modern backgammon.

Zeno, who was white, had a stack of seven checkers, three stacks of two checkers and two blots , checkers that stand alone on a point and are therefore in danger of being put outside the board by an incoming opponent checker.

Zeno threw the three dice with which the game was played and obtained 2, 5 and 6. As in backgammon, Zeno could not move to a space occupied by two opponent black pieces.

The white and black checkers were so distributed on the points that the only way to use all of the three results, as required by the game rules, was to break the three stacks of two checkers into blots, exposing them and ruining the game for Zeno.

In Roman times this game was also known as alea , and a likely apocryphal Latin story linked this name, and the game, to a Trojan soldier named Alea.

Race board games involving dice have existed for millennia in the Near East and eastern Mediterranean, including the game senet of Ancient Egypt.

The ancient Egyptian game senet was excavated, along with illustrations, from Egyptian royal tombs dating to BC. The usual Tavla rules are same as in the neighboring Arab countries and Greece, as established over a millennium ago, [64] but there are also many quite different variants.

Backgammon is popular among Greeks. It is a game in which Greeks usually tease their opponent and they create a lively atmosphere. The game is called "Tavli", derived in Byzantine times from the Latin word "tabula".

Set-up and rules the same as backgammon, except that backgammons count as gammons 2 points and there is no doubling cube. A game where one checker can trap another checker on the same point.

A game where one checker by itself can block a point. Also known as Acey-deucey where all checkers are off the board, and you enter by rolling either doubles or acey-deucey.

These games are played one after another, in matches of three, five, or seven points. Players use the same pair of dice in turns.

After the first game, the winner of the previous game starts first. In Japan ban-sugoroku is thought to have been introduced from China in the 6th century.

As a gambling game it was made illegal several times. By the 13th century, the board game Go , originally played only by the aristocracy, had become popular among the general public.

The jeux de tables Games of Tables , predecessors of modern backgammon, first appeared in France during the 11th century and became a favorite pastime of gamblers.

In , Louis IX issued a decree prohibiting his court officials and subjects from playing. In Spain , the Alfonso X manuscript Libro de los juegos , completed in , describes rules for a number of dice and table games in addition to its extensive discussion of chess.

A wooden board and checkers were recovered from the wreck of the Vasa among the belongings of the ship's officers.

Some surviving artworks are " Cardsharps " by Caravaggio the backgammon board is in the lower left and " The Triumph of Death " by Pieter Bruegel the Elder the backgammon board is in the lower right.

In the 16th century, Elizabethan laws and church regulations prohibited playing tables, but by the 18th century, backgammon was popular among the English clergy.

In English, the word "backgammon" is most likely derived from "back" and Middle English " gamen ", meaning "game" or "play".

The earliest use documented by the Oxford English Dictionary was in The most recent major development in backgammon was the addition of the doubling cube.

The popularity of backgammon surged in the mids, in part due to the charisma of Prince Alexis Obolensky who became known as "The Father of Modern Backgammon".

He also established the World Backgammon Club of Manhattan, devised a backgammon tournament system in , then organized the first major international backgammon tournament in March, , which attracted royalty, celebrities and the press.

Cigarette, liquor and car companies began to sponsor tournaments and Hugh Hefner held backgammon parties at the Playboy Mansion. Board and committee members include many of the top players, tournament directors and writers in the worldwide backgammon community.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the film, see Backgammon film. A backgammon set, consisting of a board, two sets of 15 checkers, two pairs of dice, a doubling cube, and dice cups.

This section may be confusing or unclear to readers. In particular, The picture is incorrect because it does not take into account that when rolling doubles, a given distance may be traveled using the rolled number 3 or 4 times.

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Backgammon Deutsch Video

Backgammon Spielregeln - #2 - Wie man Steine bewegt Allerdings musste man mit den Steinen die durch die zwölf Linien bezeichnete Strecke dreimal durchlaufen und nicht nur zweimal. Weitere Links zu Backgammon Backgammon in der Wikipedia. November um Felder, die bereits mit zwei oder mehr gegnerischen Steinen besetzt sind, können von den eigenen Steinen nicht benutzt werden. Wer zuerst alle seine Steine herauswürfelt, hat gewonnen. Gewinnt während des Spieles einer der Spieler den Eindruck, dass er das Spiel gewinnen wird, so kann er dem Gegner den Dopplerwürfel anbieten. Könnte er von seinen Würfeln beide nutzen, aber nicht gleichzeitig, so muss er das höhere Würfelergebnis nutzen. Dieses Turnier wurde fortan jährlich ausgerichtet: Die übrigen Regeln sind gleich. Beim Auswürfeln ist auch folgendes möglich: Beim Auswürfeln würfelt der Spieler eine 2 und eine 4. Ein Spiel kann zwar theoretisch unendlich lang dauern, aber nur mit Wahrscheinlichkeit 0 , wie Curt McMullen bewiesen hat: In den einzelnen Runden tragen jeweils zwei Spieler ein Match auf eine gewisse Punktezahl z. Bei Backgammon-Turnieren wird auch gewettetdie dabei vorherrschende Wettart ist die Calcutta-Auktion. Könnte er von seinen Würfeln beide nutzen, aber nicht gleichzeitig, Beste Spielothek in Leichhardt finden muss er das höhere Würfelergebnis nutzen. Der Besitzer dieses Steins darf erst dann andere Steine ziehen, wenn er alle seine geschlagenen Steine von der Bar wieder zurück ins Spiel gebracht hat. Hat der Spieler einen Pasch gewürfelt, d. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am Backgammon-Turniere online casino umfrage bonus zumeist nach dem K. Sie besagt, dass der Gewinn eines Gammons oder Backgammons nur dann zählt, wenn vorher bereits gedoppelt wurde. Gewürfelt wird mit zwei sechsseitigen Würfeln. Das Spiel ist gewonnen, wenn der Gegner aufgibt oder wenn zuerst keine eigenen Steine mehr auf dem Brett sind. Dafür wird der Dopplerwürfel eine Stufe höher gedreht. Die Positionierung des Gegenspielers ergibt sich daraus aber immer zwingend: Die Steine können nur auf Felder gesetzt werden, die noch offen sind, d. Felder, die bereits mit zwei oder mehr gegnerischen Steinen besetzt gambling seiten, können von den eigenen Steinen nicht benutzt werden. Die Steine ergebnis deutschland england nicht schlagen.

Backgammon deutsch -

Dabei werden alle Steine des Spielers diagonal versetzt auf seinem letzten Punkt 24 als Startposition versammelt und jeweils gegen den Uhrzeigersinn gespielt. Verdoppeln darf der Spieler, in dessen Besitz sich der Dopplerwürfel befindet, und zwar vor dem eigentlichen Würfelwurf mit den beiden 6er Würfeln. Die alten Griechen führten die Erfindung des Würfel-Brettspiels auf Palamedes zurück, der damit den vor Troja lagernden Soldaten geholfen haben soll, die Zeit zu vertreiben. Bei Backgammon-Turnieren wird auch gewettet , die dabei vorherrschende Wettart ist die Calcutta-Auktion. Der Spieler, der die höhere Augenzahl gewürfelt hat, beginnt. Der Stein darf dabei nur auf Felder ziehen, die frei, bereits von eigenen Steinen belegt oder mit nur einem gegnerischen Stein besetzt sind. Kaiser Claudius war ein begeisterter Spieler und verfasste über dieses Spiel ein Buch, das leider verloren gegangen ist.

BlackJack Free Rated 3 out of 5 stars. Draw Poker Free Rated 3. What's new in this version This update includes support for Windows 8.

New and improved graphics for Windows 8. Test your technique against 3 difficulty levels! Move-Assist highlights available moves 1, 3, 5, 9, and 15 point matches with doubling Extensive game statistics.

Additional information Published by WildCard Games. Published by WildCard Games. Developed by WildCard Games.

Age rating For ages 12 and up. This app can Access your Internet connection. Installation Get this app while signed in to your Microsoft account and install on up to ten Windows 10 devices.

Language supported English United States. Additional terms Backgammon Free privacy policy Terms of transaction.

Seizure warnings Photosensitive seizure warning. Report this product Report this game to Microsoft Thanks for reporting your concern.

Our team will review it and, if necessary, take action. Sign in to report this game to Microsoft. Report this game to Microsoft.

Report this game to Microsoft Potential violation Offensive content Child exploitation Malware or virus Privacy concerns Misleading app Poor performance.

How you found the violation and any other useful info. Recommended Your device should meet these requirements for the best experience OS Windows 8.

Crawford , is designed to make match play more equitable for the player in the lead. If a player is one point away from winning a match, that player's opponent will always want to double as early as possible in order to catch up.

Whether the game is worth one point or two, the trailing player must win to continue the match. To balance the situation, the Crawford rule requires that when a player first reaches a score one point short of winning, neither player may use the doubling cube for the following game, called the Crawford game.

After the Crawford game, normal use of the doubling cube resumes. The Crawford rule is routinely used in tournament match play. If the Crawford rule is in effect, then another option is the Holland rule , named after Tim Holland , which stipulates that after the Crawford game, a player cannot double until after at least two rolls have been played by each side.

It was common in tournament play in the s but is now rarely used. There are many variants of standard backgammon rules.

Some are played primarily throughout one geographic region, and others add new tactical elements to the game. Variants commonly alter the starting position, restrict certain moves, or assign special value to certain dice rolls, but in some geographic regions even the rules and directions of the checkers' movement change, rendering the game fundamentally different.

Acey-deucey is a variant of backgammon in which players start with no checkers on the board, and must bear them on at the beginning of the game.

The roll of is given special consideration, allowing the player, after moving the 1 and the 2, to select any desired doubles move.

A player also receives an extra turn after a roll of or of doubles. Hypergammon is a variant of backgammon in which players have only three checkers on the board, starting with one each on the , and points.

The game has been strongly solved , meaning that exact equities are available for all 32 million possible positions. There are also different starting positions.

Nackgammon is a variant of backgammon invented by Nick "Nack" Ballard [12] in which players start with one less checker on the six point and midpoint and two checkers on the 23 point.

Russian backgammon is a variant described in as: In this variant, doubles are more powerful: Gul Bara and Tapa are also variants of the game popular in southeastern Europe and Turkey.

The play will iterate among Backgammon, Gul Bara, and Tapa until one of the players reaches a score of 7 or 5. Coan ki is an ancient Chinese board game that is very similar.

Plakoto , Fevga and Portes are three versions of backgammon played in Greece. Together, the three are referred to as Tavli. Other minor variants to the standard game are common among casual players in certain regions.

For instance, only allowing a maximum of five checkers on any point Britain [17] or disallowing "hit-and-run" in your home board Middle East.

Backgammon has an established opening theory , although it is less detailed than that of chess. The tree of positions expands rapidly because of the number of possible dice rolls and the moves available on each turn.

Recent computer analysis has offered more insight on opening plays, but the midgame is reached quickly. After the opening, backgammon players frequently rely on some established general strategies, combining and switching among them to adapt to the changing conditions of a game.

A blot has the highest probability of being hit when it is 6 points away from an opponent's checker see picture.

Strategies can derive from that. The most direct one is simply to avoid being hit, trapped, or held in a stand-off. A "running game" describes a strategy of moving as quickly as possible around the board, and is most successful when a player is already ahead in the race.

As the game progresses, this player may gain an advantage by hitting an opponent's blot from the anchor, or by rolling large doubles that allow the checkers to escape into a running game.

The "priming game" involves building a wall of checkers, called a prime, covering a number of consecutive points.

This obstructs opposing checkers that are behind the prime. A checker trapped behind a six-point prime cannot escape until the prime is broken. Because the opponent has difficulty re-entering from the bar or escaping, a player can quickly gain a running advantage and win the game, often with a gammon.

A "backgame" is a strategy that involves holding two or more anchors in an opponent's home board while being substantially behind in the race.

The backgame is generally used only to salvage a game wherein a player is already significantly behind.

Using a backgame as an initial strategy is usually unsuccessful. For example, players may position all of their blots in such a way that the opponent must roll a 2 in order to hit any of them, reducing the probability of being hit more than once.

Many positions require a measurement of a player's standing in the race, for example, in making a doubling cube decision, or in determining whether to run home and begin bearing off.

The minimum total of pips needed to move a player's checkers around and off the board is called the "pip count". The difference between the two players' pip counts is frequently used as a measure of the leader's racing advantage.

Players often use mental calculation techniques to determine pip counts in live play. Backgammon is played in two principal variations, "Money" and "Match" play.

Money play means that every point counts evenly and every game stands alone, whether money is actually being wagered or not. The format has a significant effect on strategy.

In a match, the objective is not to win the maximum possible number of points, but rather to simply reach the score needed to win the match.

For example, a player leading a 9-point match by a score of 7—5 would be very reluctant to turn the doubling cube, as their opponent could take and make a costless redouble to 4, placing the entire outcome of the match on the current game.

In money play, the theoretically correct checker play and cube action would never vary based on the score. In , Emmet Keeler and Joel Spencer considered the question of when to double or accept a double using an idealized version of backgammon.

In their idealized version, the probability of winning varies randomly over time by Brownian motion , and there are no gammons or backgammons.

To reduce the possibility of cheating, most good quality backgammon sets use precision dice and a dice cup. Online cheating has therefore become extremely difficult.

In State of Oregon v Barr, a court case pivotal to the continued widespread organised playing of backgammon in the USA, the State argued backgammon is a game of chance and that it was therefore subject to Oregon's stringent gambling laws.

Paul Magriel was a key witness for the defence, contradicting Dr. Roger Nelson, the expert prosecution witness, by saying, "Game theory, however, really applies to games with imperfect knowledge, where something is concealed, such as poker.

Backgammon is not such a game. Everything is in front of you. The person who uses that information in the most effective manner will win.

After the closing arguments, Judge Stephen S. Walker concluded that backgammon is a game of skill, not a game of chance, and found the defendant, backgammon tournament director Ted Barr, not guilty of promoting gambling.

Enthusiasts have formed clubs for social play of backgammon. A backgammon chouette permits three or more players to participate in a single game, often for money.

One player competes against a team of all the other participants, and positions rotate after each game. Chouette play often permits the use of multiple doubling cubes.

Backgammon clubs may also organize tournaments. Large club tournaments sometimes draw competitors from other regions, with final matches viewed by hundreds of spectators.

Winners at major tournaments may receive prizes of tens of thousands of dollars. Starting in January , tournament directors began awarding GammonPoints, [32] a free points registry for tournament directors and players, with GammonPoint awards based on the number of players and strength of field.

The first world championship competition in backgammon was held in Las Vegas , Nevada in Tim Holland was declared the winner that year and at the tournament the following year.

For unknown reasons, there was no championship in , but in , Tim Holland again won the title. In , Lewis Deyong, who had promoted the Bahamas World Championship for the prior three years, suggested that the two events be combined.

By the 21st century, the largest international tournaments had established the basis of a tour for top professional players. Major tournaments are held yearly worldwide.

PartyGaming sponsored the first World Series of Backgammon in from Cannes and later the 'Backgammon Million' tournament held in the Bahamas in January with a prize pool of one million dollars, the largest for any tournament to date.

The event was recorded for television in Europe airing on Eurosport. In , the WBA collaborated with the online backgammon provider Play65 for the season of the European Backgammon Tour and with "Betfair" in At the 43rd World Backgammon Championship in Monte Carlo, [38] former radio talk show host Larry Shiller began color-commenting matches as the Voice of Backgammon, [39] with archived videos on Twitch [40] and YouTube.

When backgammon is played for money , the most common arrangement is to assign a monetary value to each point, and to play to a certain score, or until either player chooses to stop.

The stakes are raised by gammons, backgammons, and use of the doubling cube. Backgammon is sometimes available in casinos.

Before the commercialization of artificial neural network programs, proposition bets on specific positions were very common among backgammon players and gamblers.

Backgammon software has been developed not only to play and analyze games, but also to facilitate play between humans over the internet.

Dice rolls are provided by random or pseudorandom number generators. Real-time online play began with the First Internet Backgammon Server in July , [44] [45] but there are now a range of options; [46] many of which are commercial.

Backgammon has been studied considerably by computer scientists. Neural networks and other approaches have offered significant advances to software for gameplay and analysis.

The first strong computer opponent was BKG 9. Early versions of BKG played badly even against poor players, but Berliner noticed that its critical mistakes were always at transitional phases in the game.

He applied principles of fuzzy logic to improve its play between phases, and by July , BKG 9. It won the match, 7—1, becoming the first computer program to defeat a world champion in any board game.

Berliner stated that the victory was largely a matter of luck, as the computer received more favorable dice rolls. In the late s, backgammon programmers found more success with an approach based on artificial neural networks.

Its neural network was trained using temporal difference learning applied to data generated from self-play. Tesauro proposed using rollout analysis to compare the performance of computer algorithms against human players.

The rollout score of the human or the computer is the difference of the average game results by following the selected move versus following the best move, then averaged for the entire set of taken moves.

The strength of these programs lies in their neural networks' weights tables, which are the result of months of training.

Without them, these programs play no better than a human novice. For the bearoff phase, backgammon software usually relies on a database containing precomputed equities for all possible bearoff positions.

Computer-versus-computer competitions are also held at Computer Olympiad events. Backgammon is one of the oldest games in existence.

Its history can be traced back nearly 5, years to its origins in Mesopotamia modern-day Iraq. The world's oldest set of dice made from human bone were recently discovered in that part of the world.

Modern Iraqis continue to enjoy playing the game. It used tetrahedral dice. In the modern Middle East, backgammon is a common feature of coffeehouses.

Race board games involving dice have a long history in Iraq, including the Royal Game of Ur in Babylon. In the modern Arab Levant and Iraq it is called tawle which means table, and it is also called shesh besh shesh means 6 in Aramaic and Phoenician , but derives from Phoenician.

The artifacts included two dice and 60 checkers, and the set is believed to be to years older than the Royal Game of Ur.

On the board found in Shahr-e Sukhteh the fields are fashioned by the coils of a snake. Touraj Daryaee —on the subject of the first written mention of early precursors of backgammon—writes:.

The use of dice for the game is another indication of its Indic origin, since dice and gambling were a favorite pastime in ancient India.

According to the historical legend, the Indian king Dewisarm sends his minister Taxritos to Persia with the game of chess , and a letter challenging Sasanian King Khosrow I to solve the riddle or rationale for the game.

Khosrow asks for three days to decipher the game, but initially no-one in the court is able to make any progress. On the third day, Khosrow's minister, Wuzurgmihr, successfully rises and explains the logic of the game.

As a reciprocal challenge, Wuzurgmihr constructs the game of backgammon and delivers it to the Indian king who is unable to decipher the game.

In the 11th century Shahnameh , the Persian poet Ferdowsi credits Burzoe with the invention of the tables game nard in the 6th century.

He describes an encounter between Burzoe and a Raja visiting from India. The Raja introduces the game of chess , and Burzoe demonstrates nard , played with dice made from ivory and teak.

Murray details many versions of backgammon; modern Nard is noted there as being the same as backgammon and maybe dating back to — AD in the Babylonian Talmud, [2] although others believe the Talmud references the Greek race game Kubeia.

Backgammon or nardi Armenian: The word is derived from Persian word nard Persian: There are two games of nardi commonly played:.

Set-up and rules the same as backgammon. A game which starts with all fifteen checkers placed in one line-on point and on point. The two players move their checkers in opposing directions, from the point towards the 1-point, or home board.

In long nardi one checker by itself can block a point. There is no hitting in long nardi. The objective of the game is bearing all checkers off the board.

There is no doubling cube. As today, each player had 15 checkers and used cubical dice with sides numbered one to six. The only differences with modern backgammon were the use of an extra die three rather than two and the starting of all pieces off the board with them entering in the same way that pieces on the bar enter in modern backgammon.

Zeno, who was white, had a stack of seven checkers, three stacks of two checkers and two blots , checkers that stand alone on a point and are therefore in danger of being put outside the board by an incoming opponent checker.

Zeno threw the three dice with which the game was played and obtained 2, 5 and 6. As in backgammon, Zeno could not move to a space occupied by two opponent black pieces.

The white and black checkers were so distributed on the points that the only way to use all of the three results, as required by the game rules, was to break the three stacks of two checkers into blots, exposing them and ruining the game for Zeno.

In Roman times this game was also known as alea , and a likely apocryphal Latin story linked this name, and the game, to a Trojan soldier named Alea.

Race board games involving dice have existed for millennia in the Near East and eastern Mediterranean, including the game senet of Ancient Egypt.

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